Fluid and Electrolytes

Course Description

Fluid and Electrolyte.mp4A healthy body requires an optimum balance of fluids and electrolytes. Total amount of fluid in the body is approximately 70% of the body weight. Electrolytes are minerals in our body that have an electric charge. They are in our blood, urine and body fluids. Maintaining the right balance of electrolytes helps our body’s blood chemistry, muscle action and other processes. Sodium, calcium, potassium, chlorine, phosphate and magnesium are all electrolytes. We get them from the foods and the fluids , which we eat and drink.
Levels of electrolytes in your body can become too low or too high. That can happen when the amount of water in our body changes, causing dehydration or overhydration.

This course is divided into 4 units, which is further sub-divided into different chapters.

Unit 1 : Fluid balance
Unit 2 : Fluid imbalance
Unit 3 : Electrolyte balance
Unit 4 : Electrolyte imbalances


    1. Fluid and electrolyte balance is a dynamic process that is crucial for life and homeostasis. Potential and actual disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance occur in every setting, with every disorder and with a variety of changes that affect healthy people (e.g., increased fluid and sodium loss with strenuous exercise and high environmental temperature, inadequate intake of fluid an delectrolytes)as well as those who are ill.

       This course is divided into 4 units, which is further sub-divided into different chapters.

       Unit 1 : Fluid balance

      Unit 2 : Fluid imbalance

      Unit 3 : Electrolyte balance

      Unit 4 : Electrolyte imbalances

    1. Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of living organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges. The core principle of fluid balance is that the amount of water lost from the body must equal the amount of water taken in; for example, in human homeostasis, the output (via respiration, perspiration, urination, defecation, and expectoration) must equal the input (via eating, drinking, and parental intake). 


      1. To explain fluid distribution in the body
      2. To discuss the concepts of fluid separation and balance in the body
      3. To describe the processes involved in movement of fluid and electrolytes.
    1. Electrolytes are vital for the normal functioning of the human body. Electrolytes include sodium, potassium, calcium and bicarbonate. Electrolytes regulate our nerve and muscle function, our body's hydration, blood pH, blood pressure, and the rebuilding of damaged tissue. Various mechanisms exist in our body that keep the concentrations of electrolytes under strict control. Our muscles and neurons are sometimes referred to as the "electric tissues" of the body. They are reliant on electrolyte movement between extracellular, interstitial and intracellular fluid (fluid inside, outside or between cells).


      • To discuss the overview of electrolytes in the human body
      • To explain the significance and regulation of sodium
      • To identify the role of potassium in various body systems
      • To explicit the hormonal regulation of calcium
      • To extrapolate the regulation of phosphorus
      • To delineate the importance of chloride and chloride shift
      • To outline the role of kidneys and intestines in magnesium regulation
      • To appreciate the bicarbonate buffer system
    1. Every part of our body needs water to function. When we are healthy, our body is able to balance the amount of water that enters or leaves our body. A fluid imbalance may occur when we lose more water or fluid than our body can take in. It can also occur when one takes in more water or fluid than our body is able to get rid of.


      • To plan effective care of patients with fluid volume deficit
      • To describe the pathological process and management of patients with fluid volume excess
      • To develop the knowledge and acquire skills in caring clients with hyponatremia
      • To recognise the disease process associated with hypernatremia
    1. An electrolyte imbalance can be manifested in several ways. The symptoms will depend on which electrolyte is out of balance, and whether that level is too high or too low. Disturbances in electrolyte balances are common in clinical practice and may need to be corrected based on history, physical examination findings, and laboratory values. (with comparison to previous values)


      To discuss the concept, causes, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, assessment and diagnostic findings, medical management, nursing management and prevention for the following imbalances:

      1. Calcium deficit (Hypocalcemia)
      2. Calcium excess (Hypercalcemia)
      3. Magnesium deficit (Hypomagnesemia)
      4. Magnesium excess (Hypermagnesemia)
      5. Phosphorus deficit (Hypophosphatemia)
      6. Phosphorus excess (Hyperphosphatemia)
      7. Chloride deficit (Hypochloremia)
      8. Chloride excess (Hyperchloremia)
      9. Potassium deficit (Hypokalemia)
      10. Potassium excess (Hyperkalemia)
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